getting started with git
Create a new repository
Create a directory where you'll store your project and inside that directory run command:
Checkout a repository
Create a working copy of a local repository by running the command:
git clone /path/to/local/repository
When you want to use a remote server like Github or BitBucket your command will become:
git clone firstname.lastname@example.org:username/repository-name.git
username is the github account name and
repository-name is the name of the remove repository hosted in github.
Since Git was designed with a big project like Linux in mind, there are a lot of Git commands. However, to use the basics of Git, you’ll only need to know a few terms. They all begin the same way, with the word “git.”
Initializes a new Git repository. Until you run this command inside a repository or directory, it’s just a regular folder. Only after you input this does it accept further Git commands.
Short for “configure,” this is most useful when you’re setting up Git for the first time.
git config --global user.email "email@example.com" git config --global user.name "my-github-username" git config --global push.default simple
git config --global push.default simplewill refuse to push if the upstream branch's name is different from the local one
Forgot a command? Type this into the command line to bring up the 21 most common git commands. You can also be more specific and type “git help init” or another term to figure out how to use and configure a specific git command.
Check the status of your repository. See which files are inside it, which changes still need to be committed, and which branch of the repository you’re currently working on.
This does not add new files to your repository. Instead, it brings new files to Git’s attention. After you add files, they’re included in Git’s “snapshots” of the repository.
# stage a single file git add path/to/filename.ext # stage all files and directories recursively from a directory git add paht/to/directory # stage changes without deleted git add . # stage everything including deleted files git add --all .
Git’s most important command. After you make any sort of change, you input this in order to take a “snapshot” of the repository. Usually it goes git commit -m “Message here.” The -m indicates that the following section of the command should be read as a message.
git commit -m 'this is my commit description'
If you wrote some code in another branch/commit, you can cherry-pick it and add it to your working branch:
# cherry-pick specific commit (you can provide full commit hash as well) git cherry-pick 12abc3
Working with multiple collaborators and want to make changes on your own? This command will let you build a new branch, or timeline of commits, of changes and file additions that are completely your own. Your title goes after the command. If you wanted a new branch called “cats,” you’d type git branch cats.
# list local branches git branch # list remote branches git branch -r # list local and remote branches git branch -a # search for a specific branch using grep git branch -a | grep my-branch
Literally allows you to “check out” a repository that you are not currently inside. This is a navigational command that lets you move to the repository you want to check. You can use this command as git checkout master to look at the master branch, or git checkout cats to look at another branch.
# load a specific branch git checkout develop # reset file changes git checkout -- path/to/file.ext # grab specific commit into your current branch git checkout [commit hash]
When you’re done working on a branch, you can merge your changes back to the master branch, which is visible to all collaborators. git merge cats would take all the changes you made to the “cats” branch and add them to the master.
# merge develop branch into current branch git merge origin develop # merge branches "fixes" and "enhancements" on top of the current branch, making an octopus merge git merge fixes enhancements # merge branch "my-branch" into the current branch, using ours merge strategy: git merge -s ours my-branch # merge branch "my-bug-fix" into the current branch, but do not make a new commit automatically: git merge --no-commit my-bug-fix
If you’re working on your local computer, and want your commits to be visible online on GitHub as well, you “push” the changes up to GitHub with this command.
# usualy the very first commit on your repository and set master branch as an update stream git push -u origin master # push on server after you commited changes git push origin my-current-branch # or git push # this command might output some warnings, depending on the settings
If you’re working on your local computer and want the most up-to-date version of your repository to work with, you “pull” the changes down from GitHub with this command.
# get changes from the same branch if setup stream is set git pull # get changes from the same branch git pull origin my-current-branch-name # get changes from the same branch with rebase option git pull --rebase origin my-current-branch-name
git rebase (squash commits)
When you want to cleanup a branch or a PR, that means you'll want to rebase your branch against another branch (usually master or develop). Those are the commands that you'll have to run:
Let's pretend that you are on your current working branch
my-branch and want to rebase it against
# go on main branch (develop in our case) git checkout develop # update branch to have the latest changes git pull --rebase origin develop # "origin develop" is optional # switch back to your branch git checkout origin my-branch # rebase your branch against develop git rebase -i develop # -i means "interactive" # next, you'll see a list with your commits and you'll have to select which one to squash, remove, etc # update your branch (Always with --force option) git push -f origin my-brnach